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Start Writing a Subroutine in Abaqus: Basics and Recommendations

Fortran is one of the easiest programming languages to learn because it can do virtually nothing other than basic low-level operations common to all languages. Its syntax is also very similar to MATLAB. Furthermore, you need to know only an even smaller subset of FORTRAN to write a subroutine code in Abaqus. Here is a handy package of almost all the things you will need…

## 1. Basics

A Fortran program is just a sequence of lines of text. It has to follow a specific *structure*. Take a look at this simple piece of code:

PROGRAMCIRCLEREALR, AREACTHIS PROGRAM READS A REAL NUMBER R AND PRINTSCTHE AREA OF A CIRCLE WITH RADIUS R.WRITE(*,*) 'GIVE RADIUS R:'READ(*,*) R!THIS IS RADIUS OF THE CIRCLE AREA = 3.14159*R*RWRITE(*,*) 'AREA = ', AREASTOPEND

Originally, all Fortran programs had to be written in all upper-case letters. However, Fortran is not case-sensitive, so “X” and “x” are the same variable.

**Column Position Rules**

Fortran has very few rules for how to format the source code. The most important rules are the column position rules:

**»** Col. 1 Blank, or a “**C**” for comments

**» **Col. 1-5 Statement label (optional)

**» **Col. 6 Continuation of the previous line (optional)

**» **Col. 7-72 Statements

**Comments**

The lines that begin with a “**C**” here are *comments* and have no purpose other than to make the program more readable. You may also use the exclamation mark (**!**) for comments. This type of comment can be any place among your piece of code (look at ‘**!**THIS IS RADIUS OF THE CIRCLE’).

### Statement label

Statement labels are used to mark positions in the program. Typically, many loops and other statements in a single program require a statement label. The programmer is responsible for assigning a unique number to each label in each program (or subprogram). Look at **4.1. Loops Section (Do Loop)** in the second part of this article (**Under Construction**) to see a practical use of statement labels.

### Continuation

Sometimes, a statement does not fit into the 66 available columns (7-72) of a single line. One can then break the statement into two or more lines, and use the continuation mark in position 6 (I mean you put 5 spaces and then type **+**). Example:

CTHE NEXT STATEMENT GOES OVER TWO PHYSICAL LINES AREA = 3.14159265358979+* R * R

Any character can be used instead of the plus sign (**+**) as a continuation character. Also, we may use digits (using 2 for the second line, 3 for the third, and so on).

## 2. Data Types in Fortran

### Variable names

Variable names in Fortran consist of the letters **A-Z**, the digits **0-9** and underscore (**_**). The first character must be a letter.

Like many other languages, the words which make up the Fortran language are called *reserved words* and cannot be used as names of variables. Some examples are **PROGRAM**, **REAL**, **STOP**, **END**, etc.

### Variable Types

Fortran supports several different data types to make data manipulation easier:

The most frequently used data types are **integer** and **real** (floating point).

### Integers

An integer is a number that can be written without a fractional component. For example, 21, 4, 0, and −2048 are integers. Fortran has only one type for integer variables. They are usually stored as 4 bytes variables.

### Floating-point variables

When a number is not an integer, it is considered a decimal. Fortran has two different types for decimal (floating point) variables, called **REAL** and **DOUBLE PRECISION**. Numerical calculations in subroutines usually need very high precision and **DOUBLE PRECISION** should be used. Usually, a real is a 4-byte variable and the double-precision is 8 bytes. You may use the syntax **REAL*8** to denote 8-byte floating-point variables in Abaqus subroutines.

### Declarations

Every variable *should* be defined in a *declaration*. This establishes the *type* of the variable. The most common declarations are:

INTEGERVariable1, Variable2,…REALVariable1, Variable2,…DOUBLE PRECISIONVariable1, Variable2,…

Each variable should be declared exactly once. If a variable is undeclared, Fortran uses a set of *implicit rules* to establish the type. This means all variables starting with the letters **I**, **J**, **K**, **L**, **M** and** N** are **integers** and **all others** are **real**. *You have to be very careful with variable names.*

However, you can make a habit to put a simple piece of code at the top of each of your subroutines:

** IMPLICIT** NONE

Then, you must explicitly declare every variable that your subroutine uses or needs.

### Parameters

Some constants appear many times in a program. Therefore, it is often desirable to define them only once, at the beginning of the program. This is called **PARAMETER** in Fortran:

- To reduce the number of typos (i.e. typing errors).
- To facilitate changing a constant that appears many times in a program.
- To increases the readability of the code.

For example, we can rewrite the example code above (circle area) as:

PROGRAMCIRCLEREALR, AREA, PIPARAMETER(PI = 3.14159) C THIS PROGRAM READS A REAL NUMBER R AND... . . .END

The syntax of the parameter statement is

PARAMETER(name1 = value1, name2 = value2, …)

The PARAMETER statement(s) must come before the first executable statement.

### Arrays

Many computations in Abaqus subroutines use vectors and matrices. The data type Fortran uses for representing such objects is the array. A one-dimensional array corresponds to a vector, while a two-dimensional array corresponds to a matrix.

#### 1D arrays

It is just a linear sequence of elements stored consecutively in memory. For example,

REALA(6)

declares A as a real array of length 6. By convention, Fortran arrays are indexed from 1 and up. Each element of an array can be thought of as a separate variable. You reference the **i**th element of array **A** by **A**(**i**).

#### 2D arrays

Matrices are very important in linear algebra. They are usually represented by two-dimensional arrays. For example, the declaration

REALA(3,5)

defines a two-dimensional array of 3 × 5 = 15 real numbers. It is useful to think of the first index as the row index, and the second as the column index.

This article has a second part. Do not forget to continue reading when it will publish!

## References:

**FORTRAN 77 for Engineers and Scientists with an Introduction to Fortran 90**, L. Nyhoff and S. Leestma, Prentice Hall**Fortran 77 Tutorial**, Stanford University

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